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The Development of thinking in children

1. Theoretical aspects of psychological peculiarities of the development of logical thinking in children of preschool age

1.1. The concept and essence of logical thinking

Thinking is the highest level of human cognition. Thinking allows you to gain knowledge about such objects, properties and relations of the real world that cannot be perceived at the sensory stage of cognition. The result of thinking is the idea expressed in the word.

The development of children’s thinking occurs in stages. At the initial stage it is a clearly-effective, or practical thinking. The development of the visual-active thinking preschoolers contribute to picture games-puzzles, construction toys, puzzles.

Four to five years, children begin to move from the action items to action with images of these items occurring in the mind. So developing visual-figurative thinking. At this stage, the child doesn’t have to take the subject in hand, clearly enough to submit it.

At preschool age can only talk about the prerequisites for the development of verbal-logical thinking. This is the most difficult type of thinking, which do not operate on specific images, and complex abstract concepts expressed by words. Although logical thinking allows us to solve a wider range of tasks to develop scientific knowledge, do not rush to form a preschooler this kind of thinking too early. It is important to first create a solid Foundation in the form of a developed creative thinking. Such thinking allows the child to find solutions based on the specific situation [2, c.15].

The development of creative thinking contribute to the games, design, application, drawing, listening to fairy tales, dramatic mini-productions and other forms of children’s creativity.

The child at the age of four it is also important to build the capacity for such mental processes as comparison, synthesis, analysis, classification.

Verbal-logical thinking is the hardest, it operates not by specific images, and complex abstract concepts expressed by words. At preschool age can only talk about the prerequisites for the development of this kind of thinking [21, p.43].

Although logical thinking allows us to solve a wider range of tasks to develop scientific knowledge, do not rush to form a preschooler this kind of thinking as early as possible. First, it is important to create a solid Foundation developed in the form of shaped forms. It is creative thinking allows the child to find solutions based on the specific situation. Limiting the generality, a schematic logical thinking often leads to weakness, giving rise to a phenomenon that is called “formalism of thinking.” The child’s mind operates dry circuits, not capturing the richness, the fullness of life events, and therefore fails to adequately address development needs.

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1.2. Characteristics of preschool age

In the preschool age (5,5 – 7) noted the rapid development and restructuring in all physiological systems of an organism of the child: nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal. The child quickly gaining height and weight, change body proportions. There are significant changes in higher nervous activity. Characteristics of the brain, a child of six to a greater extent is close to that of the adult brain. The child’s body in the period from 5.5 to 7 years is indicative of readiness to transition to a higher stage of development of age, suggesting a more intense mental and physical challenges associated with systematic education [22, c.56].

The senior preschool age plays a special role in the mental development of the child: in this period of life begin to form new psychological mechanisms of activity and behavior.

Attention in the preschool years is involuntary in nature, but gradually it becomes more stable. A significant increase in sustained attention observed in studies in which children are encouraged to look at the pictures, to describe their content, listen to the story. The turning point in the development of attention relates to the fact that children first begin consciously. to control his attention by directing and holding it on certain items. For this purpose the senior preschool child uses certain methods which he adopts in adults. Thus, the possibilities of this new form of attention – any attention – to six-seven years already fairly large. But even older preschoolers still hard to focus on something monotonous. But in the process interesting for them, the game may not be quite stable [16, p.34].

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1.3. Psychological peculiarities of the development of logical thinking in children of preschool age

Verbal-logical thinking of the child, which begins to develop at the end of preschool age, already presupposes an ability to use words and to understand the logic of reasoning [6, c.59].

N. N. Pod’yakov specifically studied how children of preschool age, the formation of an internal plan of action, characteristic of logical thinking, and identified six stages of development of this process from Junior to senior preschool age. These stages are as follows.

1. the child is not yet able to act in the mind, but is capable with his hands, manipulating things, solve problems in clearly-effective plan, transforming appropriately the problem situation.

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1.4. Methods of assessing figuratively-logical thinking preschoolers

The most popular method to evaluate image-logical thinking is the method called “Nonsense”.

With the help of this technique are evaluated elementary imaginative representations of the child about the world and about the logical relationships that exist between some of the objects of this world: the animals, their way of life and nature. With the help of this technique determines the child’s ability to think logically and grammatically correct to Express his thought.

The procedure of the technique is as follows. Initially, the child show the picture where there are some pretty ridiculous situations with animals. While viewing the picture, the child receives instruction along the following lines: “look Carefully at this picture and tell me if everything is in its place and properly drawn. If something seems wrong, out of place or incorrectly drawn, then point at it and explain why it is not. Next, you need to say, as really should be.”

Both parts of the instructions are executed sequentially. First the kid just calls all the nonsense and points them in the picture, and then explains how actually should be. The exposure time of the image and the assignment is limited to three minutes. During this time the child should notice more ridiculous situations and explain what is wrong, why not and how actually should be. Evaluation of the results

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