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Communication as a condition of social adaptation and the formation of personality of a student with mental retardation

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Communication as a condition of social adaptation and the formation of personality of a student with mental retardation

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Abstract Communication as a condition of social adaptation and the formation of personality of a student with mental retardation

Introduction

In the conditions of transformation and further development of our society, the role and responsibility of families and schools in implementing comprehensive development of personality. The issues of education and upbringing of the younger generation, we solve a mainstream school and are before a special school for children with DSD and its graduates should be included in the sphere of material production and service of the population, due to the wide application of communication skills.

Communication with others has a significant impact on the formation of personality. Works of L. S. Vigodsky, research of the last two decades (L. I. Bozhovich, A. A. Bodalev, L. A. Leont’ev, B. F. Lomov, D. V. Elkonin, etc.) show that communication and developing in the course of interpersonal relationships play a Central role in the development of child’s personality. The education of abnormal children in communicating with adults and with peers is at the center of attention of such prominent representatives of bachelor of science as HP Vigodsky, I. I. Danyushevsky, G. M. Dul’nev. Exactly, communication is formed the child’s attitude towards others to the activity oneself. A study of interpersonal relations of pupils with disabilities, identifying their characteristics is necessary for optimization of educational work in special schools and classes, as well as for deeper penetration into the structure of the defect of children in this category.

Communication is a complex socio – psychological process of interaction between the subjects. The interaction of individuals begins with the fact that the person feels the need for activity and as a derivative from this need arises communicative task. The process of communication should be considered as the result of a complex interaction of the processes of perception and thinking. There were problems in the flow of these processes in children with mental retardation causes and problems of the process of communication.

In developing the problem of communication scholars and practitioners are United in the affirmation of the identity of communication and of life, because without communication not possible activity, the formation and development of personality. Mastery of communication skills to the success of professional activity, activity in the social sphere, personal happiness of man.

A direct consequence of developmental disabilities needs in communication is reducing the effectiveness of self-regulation of the individual. His inability to organize their interaction with others. Communication problems can lead to the destruction of one’s personality. For a child with mental retardation who have not a small problem of the psyche and development of not mastering the skills of interaction can have extremely negative consequences.

The aim of this study was to study the dynamics of children’s ideas about interpersonal relations, and the definition of the relationship between the position of the child with mental retardation in the group and its views about themselves and their peers.

Achieving this goal allows you to actively influence the formation of self-esteem of the child and respect between the children in the group.

The object of the research is students 1 – 2 – 3 classes DSD secondary school.

For collecting data we used the following methods – observation, document analysis, qualitative survey, sociometric methods.

The structure of this paper consists of two sections. The first section considers the question: communication – as a condition of social adaptation and personality formation of children with DSD – theoretical-methodological aspect. The second section presents the methodology and results of the study of interpersonal relationships and beliefs about themselves and their social surrounding of pupils with disabilities.

1. Communication as a condition of social adaptation and identity formation of children with DSD

Child development in school period is marked by the establishment of relationships with peers and adults, corresponding to digestible moral and ethical standards. In large measure, it is within this relationship the child assigns the socio-historical experience, learns important social norms and functions, acquainted with the contents of social roles. The need for the child to occupy a certain place in society, to evaluate yourself in the “I and my participation in the society”, and pronounced communicative determine the need leading activities of childhood, which include Pro-social activity and communication.

Increasing the child’s independence, combined with a significant expansion of business areas, with a focus on new, more diverse and meaningful relationships with peers and other people. The child’s need for communication is specific and is not reducible to any other, more simple needs. The satisfaction of communicative needs plays an important role in the formation of

In the literature, there is evidence feature, the three-level inclusion of the individual in the sphere of social communication. Primary inclusion in nearest family environment; then into a variety of contact groups, in particular the labour market; the third level is the inclusion of a holistic social-class system. Abnormal development or lack of satisfaction of needs in communication leads to serious deformations of the individual, to a significant deterioration of its position in the system of interpersonal relations.

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